2006 Science Scores

For 15 year Old Students

Finland: 563

Hong Kong: 542

Canada: 534

Taipei China: 532

Estonia: 531

Japan: 531

New Zealand: 530

Australia: 527

Netherlands: 526

Lichtenstein: 522

Korea: 522

Slovenia: 519

Germany: 516

United Kingdom: 515

Czech Republic: 513

Switzerland: 512

Macao China: 511

Austria: 511

Belgium: 510

Ireland: 508

Hungary: 504

Sweden: 503

Poland: 498

Denmark: 396

France: 495

Croatia: 493

Iceland: 491

Latvia: 490

United States: 489

International Student

Assessment Scores

The United States scored 28th out of 57 nations tested on basic knowledge of science! (Scientific American Mind: Sept-Oct 2009, Page 65). Hopefully the following material will give you something to think about. Archaeology is not just excavation. It is the foundation for developing models for long lost lifeways and societies. To quote Leonard Susskind:

Curiosity is like an itch; it demands to be scratched. And for a physicist, nothing itches more than a paradox, an incompatibility among the various things that one thinks one knows.
This not only applies to physics: archaeology without theory is meaningless. Below are some things that make me itch, and a few things that relieve some of that itch.

Culture as a Thermodynamic Machine

A modular approach to designing computer cultural systems. I believe it is possible to develop computer simulations of socio-cultural systems that would allow users to experience how different societies work. Continue »

Research Priorities/Questions

My twenty most important research questions for Oregon. These are my "big itch" problems that should be explored by the archaeological community.

Cultural Ecology

My approach to theory for Oregon. The tie between where one lives and the available resources groups can exploit, shapes the possibilities for the cultural relationships that result.

Prehistoric Architecture

Summary of gray literature on housing for Oregon. This material was gleaned from the over 18,000 reports on file at the Oregon State Historic preservation Office.

Coastal Tsunami

Tsunami paper [PDF] exploring the relationships between the history of great subduction earthquakes and tsunami impacts on population growth.

Modeling Oregon Coastal Prehistory

Pocket beaches stretch from headland to headland and contain rivers or estuaries as food resource areas. They served as centers of group settlement on the Oregon coast. Continue »


I coined the term "pyroculture" to describe fire as a plant and animal management/intensification tool prior to the development of agriculture. This paper analyzes prehistoric populations' use of fire as a means of economic development.

Recursive Dreams

Cosmology and physics is my hobby. "Recursive Dreams" summarizes my philosophy and view. What is life? How does it work? Understanding what the universe is all about is a "big itch" of mine. Continue »